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In December 1990, the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic's name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.(In 1993, it became the Kyrgyz Republic.) The following January, Akayev introduced new government structures and appointed a new government composed mainly of younger, reform-oriented politicians.From the 10th century the Kyrgyz migrated as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years.In the twelfth century the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion.Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous terrain.It is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Kyrgyzstan's recorded history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires.
The territory, then known in Russian as "Kirghizia", was formally incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1876.
Literacy was greatly improved, and a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace. Many aspects of Kyrgyz national culture were retained despite the suppression of nationalist activity under Joseph Stalin, who controlled the Soviet Union from the late 1920s until 1953.
The early years of glasnost had little effect on the political climate in Kyrgyzstan.
and Askar Akayev, the youngest of five sons born into a family of collective farm workers (in northern Kyrgyzstan), was elected president in October of that same year.
By then, the Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement (KDM) had developed into a significant political force with support in Parliament.